Have you ever wondered how much sheet music should cost? It’s a question that many musicians, music teachers, and music lovers have pondered over. Sheet music is an essential part of the music industry, and it plays a crucial role in the learning and performance of music. However, the cost of sheet music can vary greatly, and it’s essential to understand why. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the various factors that determine the cost of sheet music, including the cost of production, the difficulty of the piece, and the reputation of the composer. Whether you’re a professional musician or a hobbyist, this guide will provide you with valuable insights into the world of sheet music pricing. So, let’s dive in and explore the fascinating world of sheet music!
Understanding the Basics of Sheet Music
What is Sheet Music?
Sheet music is a written representation of a song or piece of music. It is a visual guide that helps musicians read and play music. It consists of horizontal lines and spaces that correspond to different notes and rhythms. Sheet music can be written in various clefs, such as treble, bass, and alto, depending on the instrument or voice being played. The sheet music provides a detailed representation of the melody, harmony, and rhythm of a song, allowing musicians to interpret and perform the music accurately.
Types of Sheet Music
When it comes to sheet music, there are several types that you may come across. These types include:
- Popular Sheet Music: This type of sheet music includes popular songs from various genres, such as pop, rock, and jazz. It is often sold in music stores or online and is a great way to learn how to play your favorite songs on an instrument.
- Classical Sheet Music: Classical sheet music is typically composed for classical instruments such as the piano, violin, and cello. It includes compositions from various time periods, including Baroque, Classical, and Romantic.
- Musical Theater Sheet Music: This type of sheet music is from musicals and includes popular songs from Broadway shows. It is a great way to learn how to sing and play songs from your favorite musicals.
- Folk Sheet Music: Folk sheet music includes traditional songs from various cultures and countries. It is often played on acoustic instruments such as the guitar and banjo.
- Educational Sheet Music: This type of sheet music is designed for music students and includes exercises and studies to help improve musical skills. It is often used by music teachers and students in lessons.
Understanding the different types of sheet music can help you determine which type is best for your needs and interests. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced musician, there is a type of sheet music out there for you.
The Importance of Sheet Music
Sheet music is a written representation of a piece of music. It is used by musicians to read and perform a composition. The importance of sheet music lies in its ability to provide a way for musicians to communicate and collaborate.
Sheet music allows musicians to transcribe and share their compositions with others. It also serves as a record of a composition, allowing musicians to refer to it when they perform or record the piece. In addition, sheet music can be used as a teaching tool, allowing musicians to learn and practice a composition.
Moreover, sheet music is a way for musicians to explore different musical styles and genres. It provides a window into the history of music, allowing musicians to study and perform compositions from different time periods. This helps to promote the appreciation and understanding of music as an art form.
Overall, sheet music is an essential tool for musicians, allowing them to communicate, collaborate, learn, and explore different musical styles and genres.
Factors Affecting the Cost of Sheet Music
Quality of the Music
When it comes to sheet music, the quality of the music can have a significant impact on the cost. Here are some factors that can affect the quality of sheet music:
- Reputation of the Composer: Sheet music from well-known composers such as Beethoven or Mozart can be more expensive due to their reputation and the popularity of their music.
- Difficulty of the Music: Music that is more complex or challenging to play can be more expensive, as it requires more skill and expertise to perform.
- Arrangement and Orchestration: The way the music is arranged and orchestrated can also affect the cost of sheet music. For example, a piece of music arranged for a full orchestra may be more expensive than a solo piano arrangement.
- Publisher: The publisher of the sheet music can also play a role in the cost. Sheet music from well-known publishers such as Hal Leonard or Alfred may be more expensive than similar music from lesser-known publishers.
- Quality of Printing: The quality of the printing can also impact the cost of sheet music. Sheet music that is printed on high-quality paper with clear and legible notation may be more expensive than music that is printed on lower-quality paper.
Overall, the quality of the music can greatly impact the cost of sheet music. While some music may be more expensive due to its complexity or reputation, other music may be more affordable due to its simplicity or lesser-known composer. As a musician or music enthusiast, it’s important to consider the quality of the music when determining the cost of sheet music.
Popularity of the Song
When it comes to the cost of sheet music, the popularity of the song is a crucial factor to consider. Generally, popular songs tend to have higher prices than lesser-known songs. This is because the demand for popular songs is typically higher, and publishers can charge more for them. Additionally, popular songs are often more frequently performed, which can increase the demand for their sheet music.
Furthermore, the cost of sheet music for popular songs can also be influenced by the original artist or band. For example, if a song is popularized by a well-known artist, the sheet music may be more expensive due to the recognition and fan base of the artist. On the other hand, if a song is popularized by a lesser-known artist, the sheet music may be more affordable.
In some cases, the cost of sheet music for popular songs can be quite high, making it less accessible to casual musicians. However, there are also options for purchasing sheet music for popular songs at a lower cost, such as purchasing arrangements for different instruments or purchasing digital copies of the sheet music.
Licensing and Copyright Fees
The cost of sheet music can vary significantly depending on the licensing and copyright fees associated with the composition. In many cases, these fees are charged by music publishers or performing rights organizations, such as ASCAP or BMI, and are based on the type of use and the duration of the license.
For example, if a composer wants to publish a sheet music arrangement of a popular song, they may need to pay licensing and copyright fees to the original composer or music publisher. These fees can range from a few hundred dollars to several thousand dollars, depending on the popularity and marketability of the song.
Similarly, if a musician wants to perform a copyrighted composition in public, they may need to obtain a license from the copyright holder or a performing rights organization. The cost of this license can vary depending on factors such as the venue, the audience size, and the duration of the performance.
In some cases, composers and musicians may also need to pay royalties on any recordings or digital distributions of their compositions. These royalties are typically collected by performing rights organizations and are based on the number of plays or downloads of the composition.
Overall, licensing and copyright fees can have a significant impact on the cost of sheet music, and composers and musicians should be aware of these fees when choosing which compositions to perform or publish.
When it comes to the cost of sheet music, one of the key factors to consider is the distribution channels through which the music is sold. There are several different channels through which sheet music can be purchased, each with its own associated costs and price points.
- Physical Music Stores: One of the most traditional ways to purchase sheet music is through a physical music store. These stores typically carry a wide selection of sheet music for a variety of instruments and skill levels. The cost of sheet music in these stores can vary depending on the store’s location, the popularity of the piece, and the quality of the music. Generally, customers can expect to pay anywhere from $5 to $20 for a single sheet of music.
- Online Music Retailers: With the rise of the internet, many people now turn to online music retailers to purchase their sheet music. These retailers offer a wide selection of music, often at lower prices than physical music stores. Some popular online retailers include Sheet Music Direct and Musicnotes.com. Prices for sheet music on these sites can range from $2 to $15 per piece.
- Digital Marketplaces: In recent years, digital marketplaces like Amazon and iTunes have also begun offering sheet music for sale. These marketplaces often have lower prices than physical music stores, but the selection may be more limited. Prices for sheet music on these sites can range from $1 to $10 per piece.
- Subscription Services: Another option for purchasing sheet music is through subscription services like Musicnotes.com’s “Sheet Music Direct” or “Sheet Music Direct for Education”. These services offer a monthly subscription fee that grants access to a library of sheet music. Prices for these services can range from $5 to $20 per month.
Ultimately, the cost of sheet music can vary widely depending on the distribution channel through which it is purchased. While physical music stores may offer a wider selection, online retailers and digital marketplaces often have lower prices. Subscription services can be a convenient option for those who need regular access to a large library of sheet music.
When it comes to the cost of sheet music, printing costs play a significant role in determining the final price. There are several factors that contribute to the printing costs, including:
- Quantity: The quantity of sheets that are being printed plays a crucial role in determining the printing costs. The more sheets that are being printed, the lower the cost per sheet will be.
- Quality: The quality of the paper used for printing also affects the printing costs. High-quality paper is more expensive than standard paper, and therefore, it will increase the overall cost of printing.
- Complexity: The complexity of the sheet music also affects the printing costs. If the sheet music has a lot of intricate details or graphics, it will require more time and effort to print, which will increase the printing costs.
- Shipping: The shipping costs of the sheet music also play a significant role in determining the final price. The further the location of the printer from the buyer, the higher the shipping costs will be.
It is important to note that these factors can vary depending on the printer and the location of the buyer. Therefore, it is recommended to shop around and compare prices from different printers to find the best deal.
Time and Effort Invested
The cost of sheet music is influenced by the time and effort invested in creating it. The amount of time and effort required to compose, arrange, and engrave a piece of sheet music can vary greatly depending on the complexity of the work and the skill level of the person creating it.
For example, a simple piano piece may take only a few hours to compose and engrave, while a complex orchestral score could take several weeks or even months to complete. The amount of time and effort invested in creating the sheet music will directly impact the cost of the final product.
In addition to the time and effort required to create the sheet music, the cost may also be influenced by the reputation and experience of the composer or arranger. Composers and arrangers with a proven track record of success and a strong reputation in the industry may charge more for their work due to their expertise and the perceived value of their name.
Furthermore, the cost of sheet music may also be influenced by the popularity of the piece. If a particular piece is in high demand, the composer or arranger may be able to charge a higher price due to the increased interest in the work.
Overall, the cost of sheet music is heavily influenced by the time and effort invested in creating it. The more time and effort required to compose, arrange, and engrave a piece, the higher the cost of the final product is likely to be.
Factors to Consider When Purchasing Sheet Music
Your Musical Skill Level
When it comes to purchasing sheet music, your musical skill level is an important factor to consider. Here are some things to keep in mind:
- Beginner-Friendly Sheet Music: If you are a beginner, you may want to start with sheet music that is specifically designed for your skill level. This type of sheet music typically includes simpler melodies and chords that are easier to play. It may also include helpful tips and instructions for beginners.
- Intermediate Sheet Music: As you become more advanced, you may want to move on to sheet music that is designed for intermediate players. This type of sheet music typically includes more complex melodies and chord progressions, and may require a bit more skill and practice to play.
- Advanced Sheet Music: For those who have been playing for some time and have a good understanding of music theory, advanced sheet music may be the way to go. This type of sheet music typically includes challenging melodies and chord progressions that require a high level of skill and practice to play.
In addition to these factors, the specific genre or style of music you are interested in can also play a role in determining the level of difficulty of the sheet music. For example, classical music often requires a higher level of skill and understanding of music theory than popular music.
It’s important to choose sheet music that is appropriate for your skill level in order to ensure that you are able to play it successfully. If you are a beginner, don’t be afraid to start with simpler sheet music and work your way up as you become more advanced. And if you are an advanced player, don’t be afraid to challenge yourself with more difficult sheet music. The most important thing is to have fun and enjoy the process of learning and playing music.
The Purpose of Your Performance
When purchasing sheet music, it is important to consider the purpose of your performance. The cost of sheet music can vary greatly depending on the intended use of the music. For example, if you are a professional musician preparing for a paid performance, you may be willing to spend more on high-quality sheet music. On the other hand, if you are a beginner learning to play an instrument, you may be more interested in purchasing sheet music at a lower cost.
One factor to consider when determining the purpose of your performance is the level of difficulty of the music. Music with a higher level of difficulty may require more time and effort to learn, and may therefore be more expensive. Additionally, the type of music may also affect the cost of sheet music. For example, sheet music for classical music may be more expensive than sheet music for popular music.
It is also important to consider the format of the sheet music when determining the purpose of your performance. Sheet music can be purchased in a variety of formats, including physical books, digital downloads, and online subscriptions. The cost of sheet music may vary depending on the format, with physical books typically being more expensive than digital downloads.
Ultimately, the purpose of your performance will play a significant role in determining the cost of sheet music. Whether you are a beginner or a professional, it is important to consider your needs and budget when purchasing sheet music to ensure that you get the best value for your money.
The Type of Ensemble or Performance
When purchasing sheet music, one important factor to consider is the type of ensemble or performance for which the music is intended. Different types of ensembles or performances may require different arrangements or instrumentations, which can affect the cost of the sheet music.
- Orchestra: Sheet music for orchestral performances can vary in cost depending on the difficulty of the piece and the availability of the music. Music for standard orchestral repertoire, such as symphonies by Beethoven or Mozart, can be more affordable, while music for more contemporary or less commonly performed works may be more expensive.
- Chamber Music: Sheet music for chamber music ensembles, such as string quartets or piano trios, can also vary in cost. Music for standard chamber music repertoire, such as the quartets of Haydn or Brahms, may be more affordable, while music for less commonly performed works or works by contemporary composers may be more expensive.
- Vocal Ensembles: Sheet music for vocal ensembles, such as choirs or a cappella groups, can also vary in cost. Music for standard choral repertoire, such as the masses of Bach or Mozart, may be more affordable, while music for less commonly performed works or works by contemporary composers may be more expensive.
- Solo Instruments: Sheet music for solo instruments, such as piano or violin, can also vary in cost. Music for standard repertoire, such as the sonatas of Beethoven or Mozart, may be more affordable, while music for less commonly performed works or works by contemporary composers may be more expensive.
It’s important to keep in mind that the cost of sheet music is not always a direct indicator of the quality or difficulty of the music. It’s important to carefully consider the needs of your ensemble or performance and the availability of the music when determining the cost of sheet music.
The Duration of the Piece
When it comes to purchasing sheet music, one of the factors to consider is the duration of the piece. The length of a piece can have a significant impact on the cost of the sheet music. Generally, shorter pieces tend to be less expensive than longer ones. This is because shorter pieces require less paper and are therefore less expensive to produce.
Additionally, the duration of a piece can also affect the level of difficulty. A longer piece may be more complex and require more skill to perform, which can also influence the cost of the sheet music.
However, it’s important to note that the duration of a piece is not always the only factor that determines the cost of sheet music. Other factors, such as the popularity of the piece or the composer, can also play a role in the price.
Overall, it’s essential to consider the duration of a piece when purchasing sheet music. Shorter pieces may be more affordable, but they may not be as challenging or enjoyable to play. Longer pieces may be more complex and require more skill, but they may also be more expensive.
When it comes to purchasing sheet music, your budget is a crucial factor to consider. The cost of sheet music can vary widely, ranging from a few dollars to several hundred dollars, depending on the type of music, the level of difficulty, and the publisher. Here are some key points to keep in mind when considering your budget for sheet music:
- Type of Music: The genre of music can affect the cost of sheet music. For example, classical music is generally more expensive than popular music, and music from Broadway shows can be quite expensive as well.
- Level of Difficulty: The level of difficulty of the music can also impact the cost. Music for beginners is generally less expensive than music for advanced players, as the latter requires more skill and expertise to perform.
- Publisher: The publisher of the sheet music can also affect the cost. Music published by major publishers such as Hal Leonard or Alfred Publishing can be more expensive than music published by smaller independent companies.
- Format: The format of the sheet music can also impact the cost. For example, sheet music in hardcover can be more expensive than sheet music in softcover or digital format.
- Online vs. Physical Store: Buying sheet music online can often be cheaper than buying it in a physical store, as online retailers have lower overhead costs and can offer discounts and promotions. However, it’s important to note that physical stores may offer a wider selection of sheet music and may have knowledgeable staff who can help you find the right music for your needs.
It’s important to set a budget for sheet music and stick to it, so that you can purchase the music you need without overspending. Keep in mind that while it’s important to invest in quality sheet music, it’s also important to consider your budget and find the right balance between quality and affordability.
Sheet Music Subscription Services
Benefits of Subscription Services
There are several benefits to using sheet music subscription services. These services provide access to a vast library of sheet music, making it easy to find and download the music you need. Here are some of the benefits of using these services:
- Convenience: With a subscription service, you can access sheet music from anywhere at any time. This is especially useful for musicians who are always on the go and need to access sheet music while traveling or performing.
- Affordability: Subscription services often offer lower prices than purchasing individual sheet music pieces. This is because you pay a monthly or annual fee to access the entire library of sheet music, rather than paying for each piece individually.
- Variety: Sheet music subscription services offer a wide variety of music genres and styles, from classical to pop to jazz. This means you can easily find the music you need for any type of performance or event.
- Ease of Use: Subscription services are typically user-friendly and easy to navigate. You can search for specific pieces of music, browse by genre or style, and even create playlists of your favorite songs.
- Updates and Upgrades: Many subscription services offer regular updates and upgrades to their libraries, so you can always find the latest sheet music releases. This means you can stay up-to-date with the latest music trends and performances.
Overall, sheet music subscription services offer a convenient, affordable, and diverse way to access sheet music. Whether you’re a professional musician or a hobbyist, these services can help you find the music you need for any performance or event.
Popular Sheet Music Subscription Services
Introduction to Sheet Music Subscription Services
In recent years, sheet music subscription services have become increasingly popular among musicians, music students, and music enthusiasts alike. These services offer a vast library of sheet music that can be accessed and downloaded for a monthly fee. The cost of these services varies depending on the features and content offered. In this section, we will explore some of the most popular sheet music subscription services available today.
Musica Pro is a subscription-based service that offers a comprehensive library of sheet music for all skill levels. With Musica Pro, users can access a vast collection of classical, jazz, and contemporary music. The service also offers play-along tracks, transcriptions, and video tutorials. The cost of Musica Pro is $19.99 per month or $199.99 per year.
Musicnotes Sheet Music Store
Musicnotes Sheet Music Store is another popular subscription-based service that offers a vast library of sheet music. The service offers music from all genres, including pop, rock, jazz, and classical. Users can also access interactive sheet music, which allows them to practice and play along with their chosen piece. The cost of Musicnotes Sheet Music Store is $11.99 per month or $119.99 per year.
Songbook Universe is a subscription-based service that offers sheet music for a wide range of musical genres, including rock, pop, jazz, and classical. The service offers over 50,000 songs and includes transcriptions, chord sheets, and play-along tracks. The cost of Songbook Universe is $19.99 per month or $199.99 per year.
OnMusicBook is a subscription-based service that offers sheet music for all skill levels. The service offers a vast collection of classical, jazz, and contemporary music. Users can also access video tutorials, transcriptions, and play-along tracks. The cost of OnMusicBook is $14.99 per month or $149.99 per year.
Sheet music subscription services offer a convenient and cost-effective way to access a vast library of sheet music. Each service offers different features and content, so it’s important to choose the one that best suits your needs and preferences. With these services, musicians and music enthusiasts can expand their repertoire and explore new genres and styles.
Comparison of Sheet Music Subscription Services
When it comes to sheet music subscription services, there are several options available to musicians and music enthusiasts. Here’s a comparison of some of the most popular services:
- Wide selection of music, including popular songs and classical pieces
- Easy-to-use interface and mobile app
- Sheet music can be downloaded in different formats, including PDF and Musicnotes Pro
- Some sheet music is available for free
- More expensive than some other subscription services
- Limited availability of some songs and albums
2. Sheet Music Direct
+ Wide selection of music, including classical, jazz, and popular songs
+ Mobile app available for iOS and Android devices
+ Easy-to-use interface
+ Offers some free sheet music
+ Wide selection of classical and contemporary music
+ Affordable pricing for individual sheet music purchases
+ Limited availability of popular songs and jazz music
+ Not as many features as some other subscription services
In conclusion, each sheet music subscription service has its own unique set of pros and cons. Musicians and music enthusiasts should carefully consider their own needs and preferences when choosing a service.
Alternatives to Purchasing Sheet Music
Free Sheet Music Resources
For music enthusiasts who are looking to save some money, there are a number of free sheet music resources available online. While these resources may not have the same range of music as paid sites, they can still be a great way to access sheet music without spending any money.
Here are some popular free sheet music resources:
- IMSLP – The Petrucci Music Library is a popular online resource for classical music. It offers a wide range of free sheet music, including piano music, orchestral music, and choral music.
- Free-scores.com – This site offers a variety of free sheet music for different genres, including classical, jazz, and popular music.
- 8notes.com – This site offers free sheet music for a variety of instruments, including piano, guitar, and violin. It also has a section for music theory and ear training.
- MuseScore – MuseScore is a free music notation software that allows users to create, edit, and print sheet music. It also has a built-in search engine for finding free sheet music online.
- CCLI – Christian Copyright Licensing International offers a range of free sheet music for worship songs, hymns, and other religious music.
While these resources offer a great way to access free sheet music, it’s important to note that not all music is available for free. Additionally, the quality of the sheet music can vary, so it’s important to carefully review each piece before using it in a performance.
One alternative to purchasing sheet music is to borrow it from a library. Many public libraries carry a selection of sheet music, including classical, popular, and contemporary music. Some libraries also offer digital versions of sheet music that can be accessed online or downloaded to a device.
Advantages of Library Loans
There are several advantages to borrowing sheet music from a library. First, it can be a cost-effective way to access sheet music, especially for students or budget-conscious musicians. Additionally, libraries often have a wide selection of music in various genres and skill levels, making it easy to find music that is appropriate for your level of proficiency or your musical interests.
Library Loan Policies
When borrowing sheet music from a library, it is important to understand the library’s loan policies. Some libraries may have restrictions on the number of items that can be borrowed at one time, while others may have a limit on the length of time that an item can be borrowed. It is also important to check for any damage or missing pages when borrowing sheet music, as you may be held responsible for any damage or loss incurred during your loan period.
Digital Library Loans
Many libraries now offer digital versions of sheet music that can be accessed online or downloaded to a device. This can be a convenient way to access sheet music, especially for musicians who prefer to work with digital files. However, it is important to understand the library’s loan policies for digital materials, as they may differ from those for physical items. Additionally, some digital sheet music may be protected by copyright, so it is important to ensure that you have the necessary permissions to use and distribute the music.
Music transcriptions involve the process of transcribing or converting a piece of music from one form to another. In the context of sheet music, music transcriptions refer to the act of transcribing a song or piece of music from one instrument to another. For example, a guitarist may transcribe a piano piece to play it on the guitar. This process involves listening to the original piece and writing out the notes and chords that are played on the instrument.
One advantage of music transcriptions is that they can be a cost-effective alternative to purchasing sheet music. Transcribing a piece of music can be a fun and educational process, and it can also be a great way to learn a new instrument or to gain a deeper understanding of a particular piece of music.
However, it is important to note that music transcriptions may not always be legal. If you are transcribing a copyrighted piece of music, you may need to obtain permission from the copyright holder before you can distribute or perform the transcription. Additionally, transcribing a piece of music without proper attribution can be considered plagiarism.
Another thing to consider when it comes to music transcriptions is the quality of the transcription. If the transcription is done poorly, it may not accurately reflect the original piece of music, and it may be difficult to play. Therefore, it is important to seek out high-quality transcriptions from reputable sources, or to transcribe the music yourself if you have the necessary skills and knowledge.
Overall, music transcriptions can be a great alternative to purchasing sheet music, but it is important to consider the legal and quality issues involved in this process.
Final Thoughts on the Cost of Sheet Music
- When considering the cost of sheet music, it is important to remember that there are alternatives to purchasing it outright. These alternatives include borrowing from a library, renting from a music store, or purchasing a digital copy.
- Borrowing from a library can be a cost-effective option for those who only need sheet music for a short period of time. Many libraries carry a wide selection of sheet music, and borrowing it can be as simple as checking it out just like a book.
- Renting sheet music from a music store can also be a cost-effective option for those who need it for a short period of time. This can be a good option for students who are working on a specific piece of music for a short period of time, and do not want to make a long-term investment in sheet music.
- Purchasing a digital copy of sheet music can be a good option for those who want to have access to it on their computer or other digital device. This can be a convenient option for those who want to be able to view and play their sheet music on their computer or tablet.
- In conclusion, the cost of sheet music can vary depending on the source and format of the music. It is important to consider the different options available when making a decision about purchasing sheet music.
1. How much should sheet music cost?
The cost of sheet music can vary widely depending on a number of factors, including the difficulty of the piece, the publisher, and the medium (e.g. physical sheet music or a digital download). Generally, you can expect to pay anywhere from a few dollars to several hundred dollars for a piece of sheet music.
2. Is it cheaper to buy sheet music online or in a store?
In general, buying sheet music online can be cheaper than buying it in a store. Online retailers often have lower overhead costs, which allows them to offer lower prices. Additionally, online stores often have a wider selection of sheet music available, which can make it easier to find the specific piece you’re looking for.
3. Is it better to buy physical sheet music or a digital download?
The choice between physical sheet music and a digital download will depend on your personal preferences and needs. Physical sheet music can be easier to read and handle, and it can also be more durable than a digital download. However, digital downloads are often more convenient, as they can be instantly downloaded and accessed on multiple devices.
4. Are there any subscription services for sheet music?
Yes, there are several subscription services that offer access to a wide selection of sheet music. These services typically charge a monthly fee and allow you to download or stream sheet music as needed. This can be a convenient and cost-effective option for musicians who need access to a large library of sheet music.
5. Can I make copies of sheet music for my own personal use?
Making copies of sheet music for your own personal use is generally considered to be fair use, as long as you are not selling or distributing the copies. However, it is important to respect the copyright of the sheet music, and you should not make copies of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder.